Harvest Medicine's patient reported outcomes for pain. Sample Size 9863

Learn More:

About the Epidemic. (n.d.). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from

Abrams, D.I., Couey, P., Shade, S.B., Kelly, M.E., and Benowitz, N.L. (2011, December). Cannabinoid–Opioid Interaction in Chronic Pain. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 90(6), 844-51. Retrieved from

Borgelt, L.M., Franson, K.L., Nussbaum, A.M., Wang, G.S. (2013, February). The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis. Pharmacotherapy, 33(2), 195-209. Retrieved from

Bosshard, S.C., Grandjean, J., Schroeter, A., Baltes, C., Zeilhofer, H.U., and Rudin, M. (2012, July). Hyperalgesia by low doses of the local anesthetic lidocaine involves cannabinoid signaling: An fMRI study in mice. Pain, 153(7), 1450-8. Retrieved from

Burston, J.J., Sager, D.R., Shao, P., Bai, M., King, E., Brailsford, L., Turner, J.M., Hathway, G.J., Bennett, A.J., Walsh, D.A., Kendall, D.A., Lichtman, A., and Chapman, V. (2013, November 25). Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors Regulate Central Sensitization and Pain Responses Associated with Osteoarthritis of the Knee Joint. PLOS One, 8(11), e80440. Retrieved from

Carlini, B.H., Garrett, S.B., and Carter, G.T. (2015, September). Medicinal Cannabis: A Survey Among Health Care Providers in Washington State. The American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care. Retrieved from

Cottler, L. B., Abdallah, A. B., Cummings, S. M., Barr, J., Banks, R., & Forchheimer, R. (2011). Injury, Pain, and Prescription Opioid Use Among Former National Football League (NFL) Players. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 116(1-3), 188–194. Retrieved from

Cravatt, B.F., and Lichtman, A.H. (2004, October). The endogenous cannabinoid system and its role in nociceptive behavior. Journal of Neurobiology, 61(1), 149-60. Retrieved from

Emerich, B.L., Ferreira, R.C.M., Cordeiro, M.N., Borges, M.H., Pimenta, A.M.C., Figueiredo, S.G., Duarte, I.D.G., and de Lima, M.E. (2016). δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a, a Peptide from Phoneutria nigriventer Spider Venom, Shows Antinociceptive Effect Involving Opioid and Cannabinoid Systems, in Rats. Toxins, 8(4), 106. Retrieved from

Fine, P.G., and Rosenfeld, M.J. (2014). Cannabinoids for Neuropathic Pain. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 18(10), 451. Retrieved from

Gerak, L.R., and France, C.P. (2016, May). Combined treatment with morphine and Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) in rhesus monkeys: antinociceptive tolerance and withdrawal. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 357(2), 357-66. Retrieved from

Hirsh, A.T., Kratz, A.L., Engel, J.M., and Jensen, M.P. (2011). Survey Results of Pain Treatments in Adults with Cerebral Palsy. American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists, 90(3), 207–216. Retrieved from

Kinsey, S.G., Mahadevan, A., Zhao, B., Sun, H., Naidu, P. S., Razdan, R.K., Selley, D.E., Damaj, M.I., and Lichtman, A.H. (2011). The CB2 cannabinoid receptor-selective agonist O-3223 reduces pain and inflammation without apparent cannabinoid behavioral effects. Neuropharmacology, 60(2-3), 244–251. Retrieved from

Lee, M.C., Ploner, M., Wiech, K., Bingel, Ul, Wanigasekera, V., Brooks, J., Menon, D.K., and Tracey, I. (2013, January). Amygdala activity contributes to the dissociative effect of cannabis on pain perception. Pain, 154(1), 124-134. Retrieved from

Li, M.H., Suchland, K.L., and Ingram, S. (2016, December). Compensatory activation of cannabinoid CB2 receptor inhibition of GABA release in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in inflammatory pain. Journal of Neuroscience, 1310-16. Retrieved from

Pain: Hope Through Research (2015, September 4). National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Retrieved from

Perron, B.E., Bohnert, K., Perone, A.K., Bonn-Miller, M.O., & Ilgen, M. (2015). Use of Prescription Pain Medications Among Medical Cannabis Patients: Comparisons of Pain Levels, Functioning, and Patterns of Alcohol and Other Drug Use. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 76(3), 406–413. Retrieved from

Roberts, J.D., Gennings, C., and Shih, M. (2006, January). Synergistic affective analgesic interaction between delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and morphine. European Journal of Pharmacology, 530(1-2), 54-8. Retrieved from

Russo, E.B., and Hohmann, A.G. (2012, September 22). Role of cannabinoids in pain management. Comprehensive Treatment of Chronic Pain by Medical, Interventional, and Integrative Approaches, 181-197. Retrieved from

Staahl, C., Olesen, A.E., Andresen, T., Arendt-Nielsen, L., and Drewes, A.M. (2009, September). Assessing efficacy of non-opioid analgesics in experimental pain models in healthy volunteers- an updated review. British Pharmacological Society, 68(3), 322-341. Retrieved from

Wakley, A.A., Wiley, J.L., and Craft, RM. (2014). Sex differences in antinociceptive tolerance to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in the rat. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 143, 22–28. Retrieved from

Ware, M.A., Doyle, C.R., Woods, R., Lynch, M.E., and Clark, A.J. (2003, March). Cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain: results of a prospective survey. Pain, 102(1-2). Retrieved from

Ware, M.A., Wang, T., Shapiro, S., and Collet, J.P. (2015, September 15). Cannabis for the Management of Pain: Assessment of Safety Study (COMPASS). The Journal of Pain. Retrieved from

Webb, C. W., & Webb, S. M. (2014). Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis: A Patient Survey. Hawai’i Journal of Medicine & Public Health, 73(4), 109–111. Retrieved from

Wilsey, B., Marcotte, T. D., Deutsch, R., Gouaux, B., Sakai, S., & Donaghe, H. (2013). Low Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain. The Journal of Pain : Official Journal of the American Pain Society, 14(2), 136–148. Retrieved from

Wilsey, B., Marcotte, T.D., Deutsch, R., Zhao, H., Prasad, H., and Phan, A. (2016) An Exploratory Human Laboratory Experiment Evaluating Vaporized Cannabis in the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain from Spinal Cord Injury and Disease. Journal of Pain, doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2016.05.010. Retrieved from

Woodhams, S.G., Sagar, D.R., Burston, J.J., and Chapman, V. (2015). The role of the endocannabinoid system in pain. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, 227, 119-43. Retrieved from

Stay up to date with us!

Receive quarterly publications with Harvest Medicine announcements,
current events, & educational opportunities. You may unsubscribe at any time.